Low system propagation
The main problem is the low level of distribution of the system, due to the relatively high cost of the WLAN module. To use the Car-to-Car system effectively, 10-15% of vehicles must be equipped with wireless equipment, and this is still a long way off.
Low degree of system reliability in hazard identification
If the driver does not receive a warning from the system, this does not mean that there is no danger ahead. Even if all cars and motorcycles are equipped with the C2C system, there remain other road users (cyclists, pedestrians) who will never have this system. With active work, the communication system between cars will simply overwhelm the driver with various kinds of information, of which not all are needed for movement. This, ultimately, will constantly distract the driver from his main occupation – driving.
Another issue is related to the confidentiality of information on the wireless network. With this method of communication, there is a high probability of intercepting information and using it for personal gain.
One of the promising areas for improving traffic safety is the development and implementation of a communication system between vehicles. The system is a kind of wireless network (WLAN, Wireless Local Area Network), in which two types of nodes are distinguished – a vehicle (car, motorcycle) and infrastructure objects (traffic light, traffic control center). The communication system between vehicles is an integral part of the intelligent transport system.
Wireless access to vehicles (WAVE, Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments) is organized in accordance with the IEEE 802.11p standard. The Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) system has been in operation since 2002. The main characteristics of the system are: frequency – 5.9 GHz, range – up to 1000 m, vehicle speed – up to 100 km / h. At its core, this is a kind of Wi-Fi for cars.
The communication system between cars in Europe is called Car-to-Car (Car2Car, C2C), in the USA – Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V). The connection of a car with infrastructure facilities is designated as Car-to-Infrastructure (C2I), Vehicle-to-Roadside (V2R). But all these names do not reveal the essence of the communication system, therefore, recently another name has been proposed – Car-to-X (C2X). X refers to vehicles and infrastructure.
Currently, various organizations are working on the creation and improvement of the communication system between cars, including government transport agencies, educational institutions in the USA and Europe, car manufacturers (Audi, BMW, Daimler, General Motors, Ford, Honda, Mercedes-Benz, Nissan, Opel, PSA, Toyota, Volkswagen, Volvo), manufacturers of electronic components (Bosch, Continental, Siemens) and other companies and developers.
To consolidate efforts in the work, a number of vehicle to vehicle communication companies
have united into a consortium (Car-to-Car Communication Consortium). Work on the communication system is organized within the framework of individual projects, for example in Germany, the Safe Intelligent Mobility – Testfield Germany (SIM-TD) project is being implemented.
To implement a wireless connection, a number of structural elements are installed on the car – an antenna, a receiver, a transmitter, a control unit, which can be combined into a single WLAN module. An ordinary smartphone with the appropriate software and synchronized with the car can be used as a module.
The antenna in the module provides a wireless connection. The receiver and transmitter respectively receive and transmit information. The main work is performed by the control unit. It processes the incoming internal (from the car) and external (from the network) signals and converts them into control outputs, which, in turn, are transmitted to the car audio system and information display. In an emergency, the communication system can act on the vehicle controls to prevent an accident.
In the C2C system, there are several ways to warn the driver: a sound signal and a colored strip on the dashboard that changes color depending on the degree of danger (Ford, Mercedes-Benz), a sound signal and a warning sign on the center console (General Motors, Toyota), dashboard (Honda, Hyundai, Nissan, Volkswagen). Some manufacturers, in addition to visual and audible alarms, offer vibration of the driver's seat back (the side with which the danger is threatened vibrates).
Safety is one of the main advantages of Connected Car. It is assumed that monitoring the environment, receiving information about accidents on the roads in real time, and interacting with other vehicles will ensure safe movement for both drivers and pedestrians. Equally important is the lower energy intensity of such road infrastructure. However, there are also obstacles to the rapid development of the Connected Car concept. First of all, this is the lack of a legal framework regulating the "communication" of cars with other road users. Another is the need to build a "smart" environment in which all objects (traffic lights, etc.) will be connected to the network.
The United States has already developed a strategy for the development of Connected Car. The US Department of Transportation has made public a document expressing its intention to oblige automakers to equip cars with V2V communication, starting in 2023. The first vehicle-to-vehicle implementations should begin in 2021.
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